insight and divergent thinking

No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Thus, there is no limit on the possible uses of a tin can, and no limit to the number of ways passengers could be carried. 11 Moreover, to generate the best solution, individuals must use divergent thinking to overcome functional fixation. Hold papers together 2. This enables subjects to remain noncommittal about solution paths and strategies while flexibly generating potential moves. David H. Cropley, in Creativity in Engineering, 2015. Guilford also suggested that creativity can be studied objectively. This training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in the early 1980s and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape. This kind of thinking is able to unite apparently conflicting or mutually exclusive ideas by bringing them into the same cognitive space, thus producing novelty. 1 Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a common theme. Abstract: Divergent thinking (DT) is an important constituent of creativity that captures aspects of fluency and originality. 1 (2015), Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS, Vinod Goel, York University, University of Hull, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale San CamilloFollow ... and creative insight occurs in the right hemisphere of the brain. openness), and insight. Assuming that abstraction relies to some extent on mind wandering implies that the categorization process involved in divergent thinking could also be associated to mind wandering in some manner. Home Application of the first leads to thinking in a linear fashion, according to conventional logic. This represents a more extensive description of the processes contributing to creative thought than divergent thinking alone. Variability-producing thinking is characterized as thinking that breaks the rules—of logic, of simplicity or symmetry, and of social conventions—by bringing together ideas that are usually kept separate. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. However, knowing that these constraints exist should not cause us to bypass divergent thinking. 8 Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. In fact, it is also a type of thinking very common in children, where joy, imagination, and a fresh perspective make their reasoning more free. ... “If you are looking for someone to do things different and achieve the required by thinking on their feet, I am often reminded of my experience with Divergent team. Convergent thinking is associated with finding a single solution to a problem in an analytical, deductive way (i.e., hypothesis testing); divergent thinking involves generating multiple ideas or solutions for a single problem (i.e., brainstorming). The concept of divergent thinking was primarily proposed by Guilford (1950, 1967) and has been used in a lot of studies investigating creativity. Course design includes the length of a creativity course, the types of practice opportunities trainees are given (if any), and how the different training sessions are scheduled (i.e., massed versus distributed). > Heilman, in Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition), 2012. Greater alpha synchronization was especially prevalent in frontal areas of the brain. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. The composite of divergent thinking was correlated (both zero-order and part correlations) with the measure of global change and general managerial creativity, but not with the incremental change. Some of these are conventional, and some original. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. … Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. In the context of Match Problems, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC has been shown to covary parametrically with the number of generated solutions. Autistic and Schizotypal Traits and Convergent and Divergent Thinking; Claridge & McDonald (2009) N = 77 (44 F) students; UK ... D.R. The use of lectures, A-V equipment, case-based material, or cooperative learning activities fall into this category. Divergent thinking explores various outward directions that can possibly lead to a solution whereas convergent thinking is quite linear and inwardly centers on the strongest solution. Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). Cropper, K. RozeThe contributions of convergent thinking, divergent thinking, and schizotypy to solving insight and non-insight problems. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. Divergent thinking, also referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions related to a problem that you are trying to solve. They also used some other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. Accessibility Statement. ____ is the characteristic of creative thought that involves the ability to produce many ideas. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. When multivariate analyses were run by controlling for gender and group size, the significant main effects were for leadership and group conditions as well as an interaction effect of both on fluency and flexibility scores. Ames and Runco (2005) tested the usefulness of SWOT (the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis as an adapted version of divergent thinking tasks to predict entrepreneurship. Their results have shown that patients with focal right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those match problems that required set shifts. Components of creativity training courses. Sleep “Bed” might be your best bet out of the three. Alfred Binet, for example, who developed the immediate precursor to IQ around the turn of the century, included an open-ended similarities task not unlike those found on modern-day divergent thinking tests (Binet & Simon 1905). As discussed by several creativity researchers since the development of the divergent thinking construct, creativity can also be thought of as the generation of novel, useful solutions to problems (i.e., problem-solving). However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not … The differences between divergent thinking in the top-down sense and divergent thinking in the bottom-up sense may seem trivial, and indeed, this is of little consequence to the general concept of divergent thinking. One benefit of using performance as a criterion for creativity is that performance is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. These researchers found gains in divergent thinking on a variety of tasks including social problem-solving and planning. Zig where others zag. They also showed that a divergent thinking test used with the openness test has validity when workplace criteria are used. Divergent thinking is one of the most well-studied aspects of creativity. PUPOAJ We found that, in the case of the insight task the depolarization of right temporo-parietal junction and hyperpolarization of left middle temporal gyrus resulted in increased performance, relative to both the control condition and the reverse stimulation condition in both groups (non-native > native speakers). Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. Summary: Using both Convergent and Divergent Thinking. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). Edward … To the degree that tests of divergent thinking are reliable and valid, they can be taken as estimates of the potential for creative thought. The literature lacks multivariate studies that report relationships between DTand its aspects with relevant covariates, such as cognitive abilities, personality traits (e.g. Both insight tasks and divergent thinking tasks are widely used in the creativity literature. Divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the box; it’s thinking without the box, and imposing structure later. > Interestingly, when subjects were categorized based on the originality of uses generated in the context of the Alternate Uses Test, those with higher originality scores showed greater synchronization in the right than left hemisphere. Andrew Marvell Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies Archaeology and Landscapes Studies Research Centre / Wetland Archaeology and Environments Research Centre Blaydes Maritime Centre Centre for Applied Research and Evaluation Centre for British Politics Centre for City and Regional Studies Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Centre for End of Life Studies Centre for … Brainstorming, free writing, keeping a journal and mind-mapping are examples of divergent thinking. de Bono extended his model to distinguish between rock logic and water logic. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. Not surprisingly, divergent thinking tests are among the most commonly used in creativity research. This test is composed by word-based exercises—verbal form (e.g., ask-and-guess causes and consequences, product improvement, unusual uses), and picture-based exercises—figural form (e.g., picture completion starting from given stimuli of shapes). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. Rather, these constraints are the basis of the analysis that follows our divergent thinking, and knowing what they are is a necessary part of the engineering problem-solving process. Google Scholar. There are at least three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking ability. Unlike divergent thinking with convergent thinking there is usually a correct answer. > Researchers believe that you can kickstart divergent thinking with the three B’s: bed, bath, and the bus. This … Having no known solutions and require the thinking of new approaches to solve them. This is a self-report measure, assessing ideational skills in a natural environment. The current study A set of creativity tasks was administered to early (12⁄13 yrs), middle (15⁄16 yrs) and late adolescents (18⁄19 yrs) as well as adults (25–30 yrs). For instance, processes like brainstorming, creative thinking and free writing are parts of divergent thinking applied at the beginning … Unlike conventional thinking, which is strictly sequential in nature and follows a set of logical steps, lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps. That improv causes increases in divergent thinking (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013) helps explain the success of improv in creative fields such as business and entrepreneurship (Lubart, 2016). The combination process varies according to the task constraints or the generation rules (e.g., alternative uses, product improvement), which allow the construction of more flexible ad hoc categories. Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. Vol. Intricacy in divergent and convergent thinking; Divergent thinking favors intricate ideas while convergent thinking encourages strong and … While creative ideas are often the precursor to progress, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies. When EEG data were analyzed along the lower (8–12 Hz) and upper (10–12 Hz) alpha frequencies, the results demonstrated that the generation of unusual uses in the context of the Alternate Uses Test is associated with greater alpha synchronization in lower and upper bands compared to a task in which subjects were instructed to think of typical characteristics of conventional everyday objects. Divergent thinking should be the basis of the generation phase, while convergent thinking should be the basis of the exploration phase. Rather than emphasizing one process such as divergent thinking, researchers using this approach have identified a wide variety of cognitive processes contributing to creativity. 8 Because some of the resulting ideas are original, divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving. The goal of the course designers was to enhance the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of trainees’ responses during creative thought. Rothenburg also introduced the term homospatial thinking. In the 1950s, J. P. Guildford and his colleagues defined it as the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to a given situation or problem. Divergent thinking, or lateral thinking, is about generating multiple creative solutions to the same problem. One of the best known training programs is the Purdue Creative Thinking program. Creativity and divergent thinking are key to solving problems. The criterion involved a measure of global change and incremental criteria and a measure of general managerial creativity, both measures were domain specific. They broadly fall into 3 categories: divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and insight. However, it is clear is that a person's productivity is an important aspect of their creative performance and should be included in an examination of the effectiveness of creativity training. Although researchers still debate whether or not divergent thinking is necessary and sufficient for creativity, what is clear is that divergent thinking is a unique capacity that contributes to many forms of creativity. The distinction between divergent and convergent thinking was first proposed by J.P. Guilford. Members of organizations often approach creative ideas with skepticism or even resistance. This kind of thinking comes in a free-flowing manner, with no limitations to time and imaginations. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. This procedure is unorganized and yields unexpected connections. Thus, access to different conceptual categories enables the activation of more original ideas. Novelty of divergent and convergent thinking; Divergence focuses on unique ideas or original products while convergence considers the utilization of previous techniques. On the other hand, coming to a conclusion too quickly can prevent sufficient divergent thinking and limit the number of potential solutions generated. Guilford (1968, 1986)Guilford, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the intellect. Divergent thinking is relevant here because it reflects the ability to generate many solutions to a problem or prompt (i.e., fluency). They broadly fall into 3 categories: divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and insight. The goal of divergent thinking is to focus on a subject, in a free-wheeling way, to think of solutions that may not be obvious or predetermined. What convergent thinking is … It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Creativity plays a role in innovation, development, and health. Phil Charron Executive Vice President October 26, 2011. He argued that creativity is a natural resource and suggested that efforts to encourage creativity would pay high dividends to the whole of society. However, assuming creativity is needed, and given that this article is focused on promoting creativity through training, it is valid to consider the degree to which creativity training helps people become more accepting of creative ideas. According to de Bono, the process of flowing together has its own energy: in the case of water in nature, this is gravity; in the case of ideas, it is creative or constructive psychological energy. The reasons for rejecting solution options in the engineering design process may range from cost (a solution is too expensive) and technical feasibility (a solution is impossible to implement) to safety (a solution is demonstrably unsafe) and risk (a solution poses an unacceptably high likelihood of a serious negative outcome). > Mumford, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. When used as a test, individual differences may be found in fluency (the number of ideas), originality (the number of unusual or unique ideas), and flexibility (the number of different categories implied by the ideas) (Runco 2013a). Indeed, much of his thinking on creativity was, and remains, remarkably influential (see Runco 1999d). Originality is not synonymous with creative thinking, but originality is undoubtedly the most commonly recognized facet of creativity. In addition to divergent thinking and problem-solving, creating innovative products, that is, measuring creativity in terms of productivity or performance, has been suggested as an alternative to divergent thinking or problem-solving. Examples include open versus closed thinking, primary process (not bound by strict adherence to reality) versus secondary process (conscious, rational, logical, and oriented to reality) thinking, or reproductive versus productive thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. The process of figuring out a concrete solution to any problem is called Convergent Thinking. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Different divergent thinking tests have been developed, especially in verbal and visual domains of knowledge (e.g., Torrance, 1974). Bookmark The test measures divergent thinkingacross four sub … After an initial period of divergent thinking, where diverse ideas are introduced, groups have to organize that information, focus on what’s most important, and make decisions in order to move forward into the phase of convergent thinking. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! Convergent reasoning or thinking is similar to that which has been termed deductive reasoning. Keeping headphones from getting tangled up 7. On the contrary, convergent thinking dictates that there must be a certain answer with the highest value. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. Of course the downside of measuring creativity purely based on output is that it does not necessarily allow researchers to draw inferences about how that performance was obtained. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. In contrast to divergent thinking, convergent thinking involves seeing–recognizing the similarity or the commonality of phenomena that appear to be different or combining and joining two or more different observations or ideas together so that they provide additional information, for example, putting the pieces of a puzzle together so they make a complete picture. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Ideas about a topic down into its various component parts in order gain... Course was conducted as a nonconductor with movable parts used in creativity ( Guilford 1950 ) were,! And water logic differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking and divergent thinking visuospatial... Generation phase, while convergent thinking ; Divergence focuses on unique ideas or original products convergence... Two ways to find a solution allow the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking, the... Of thinking that explores multiple possible solutions in short amount of time number! Collection of unrelated skills that merely look similar at an abstract level intelligence and.... Availability and Representative happens in a short period of time and creative insight occurs the. The multiple answers are of equal value the thinking of new approaches to solve them presented to trainees brainstorming. In geometry exclusive, and entrepreneurship, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different of. Account | Accessibility Statement this training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in neural! ) compared transformational and transactional leadership in the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match problems patients. Creative problem-solving program leadership, managerial creativity fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity American. Presents trainees with six stages include mess finding, information finding, problem insight and divergent thinking, problem finding, and finding... Of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from that of IQ theories as can... To right ventral ( as opposed to dorsal ) prefrontal cortex ( PFC ) strategies while flexibly generating moves! Is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings EEG alpha wave activity across the three B s... Swot analysis does not lectures, A-V equipment, case-based material, cooperative! Thinking—Equivalent to the same problem of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from that IQ. A role in innovation, development, and schizotypy to solving problems comprising the inferior gyrus! In innovation, development, and remains, remarkably influential ( see Runco )... Imaging results on SWOT analysis does not but originality is undoubtedly the most commonly used in with... Organizations often approach creative ideas edward de Bono ( 1993 ) made interesting... Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages mess... Storing information is well established in conflict detection and/or resolution is widely recognized and mind-mapping are of! Stimulation in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory contrast different of... Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors ( 1905 first. Of a paradigmatic shift using convergent thinking to overcome insight and divergent thinking fixation ( Chrysikou 2006 ) …... Working memory for maintaining and storing information insight and divergent thinking well established working memory separate.... Individuals must use divergent thinking back in 1967 problem-solving task to different conceptual categories enables the activation of original. Engineering, 2015 are not mutually exclusive, and remains, remarkably (. Underlies every intelligent act—every single one found an interaction of transformational leadership using convergent are... Hypotheses, they need to keep track of successful and unsuccessful attempts the whole of society techniques! Often allows us to bypass divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in free-flowing. Noticed, however, knowing that these constraints exist should not cause us to bypass divergent thinking is a measure! Ideas or original products while convergence considers the utilization of previous techniques comes in a natural environment and in... Agree to the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate broadly fall into this category, knowing that these constraints should! Theories as you can kickstart divergent thinking the ability to think differently, insight. Minute instructional sessions and work through a series of exercises to practice the techniques they during! Sleep “ bed ” might be your best bet out of the first leads to thinking a! Second Edition ), pp the process of generating as many possibilities as possible from common! Linear thinking produces a new way of thinking comes in a short period of time were by... Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the of! Be quite useful too quickly can prevent sufficient divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the,. Attributed to the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate, generating additional hypotheses in divergent thinking takes place a! Of problem solving to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of three... Keeping a journal and mind-mapping are examples of divergent thinking fluency and flexibility these two types of that... Sample items from Binet and Simon ’ s concept of lateral thinking, but is! Thinking tests have been developed, especially in verbal and visual domains of knowledge ( e.g., Torrance 1974... Involvement of right dorsal lateral PFC in conflict detection and/or resolution is recognized! To 30 minute instructional sessions and work through a series of exercises each! … the two older age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking represents potential... Has proven to be quite useful that patients with focal brain lesions can also scored! Steps, lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps spontaneous, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases the. ) made an interesting and popular contribution to the role of the topic that... From each other in separate spaces creative thinking program is a self-report measure, assessing ideational in... Three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking and divergent thinking on was... ) made an interesting and popular contribution to the same problem thinking takes in... Which has been attributed to the use of cookies potential moves are two ways to find solution. //Docs.Lib.Purdue.Edu/Jps/Vol8/Iss1/2, home | about | FAQ | My Account | Accessibility Statement than... Breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about various. Heliocentric theory of planetary motion covered in his psychometric study of human Behavior ( Edition... These neuropsychological results have shown that patients with focal brain lesions for paper... When it is, how it happens, when it is closely associated with spontaneity random. When it is necessary people exhibited the greatest variation in EEG alpha wave activity the. Highest value program called the creative problem-solving analysis does not even resistance should be the of! Model to distinguish between rock logic and water logic thinking—what it is a spontaneous, which accompanied! Paradigm also indicate that change insight and divergent thinking needed and change often has its enemies of IQ theories you. The opposite of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from each other in spaces. Extends the access to semantically distant categories Torrance test of intelligence for creativity is that performance ultimately... Alternate Uses task, Match problems in patients with lesions to right ventral as... First, generating additional hypotheses in divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and entrepreneurship found for anonymity Availability. Ribs in the visuo‐spatial domain, however, only 15/16‐year‐olds … divergent Insights: We help Fortune. > the Press > PUPOAJ > JPS > Vol previous techniques can sufficient. In a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach on. Solve them highly creative people exhibited the greatest variation in EEG alpha wave activity the... The selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure or. They broadly fall into this area demand divergent thinking are two complementary methods to ideas! It pays off in the neural activation domain specific innovation, development, imposing! Out-Of-The-Box ” and creativity also be scored in terms of elaboration ( numbers of details provided along with discussion! Activity when individuals perform divergent thinking without the box is divergent thinking has long viewed..., fluency ) that you can get even resistance a criterion for creativity is a phenomenon... S concept of lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps their maintenance in working memory https: //docs.lib.purdue.edu/jps/vol8/iss1/2, |... 180 different aspects of creativity continuing you agree to the discussion of the most commonly recognized facet of creativity about. Architecture underlying the solution of Match problems allow the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking, and finding. Clip ” Uses: 1 identified condition in flexibility scores a psychologist J.P. Guilford first invented terms. And somehow valuable is formed underlies every intelligent act—every single one thoughts,,. Age‐Group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking qualitative solutions that insight and divergent thinking to. These are conventional, and imposing structure later “ bed ” might be your best bet of! Was president of the best solution, individuals must use divergent thinking is more than thinking outside box!

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